3D printing Additive manufacturing techniques designed to create physical objects by printing or curing layers of material sequentially using three-dimensional digital models.
A/B testing An approach that uses two different, but only slightly different, versions of a product to test a hypothesis. Users are randomly routed to alternative A or alternative B, and their experiences are measured. The alternative with the better outcome is retained and the other is retired, and the process continues on to the next hypothesis.
Account-based marketing A strategy through which marketing and sales jointly obsess over how to pursue, establish, and grow long-term, highly engaged revenue relationships with specific customer accounts.
Actionable intelligence Intelligence that is accurate, aligned with intelligence requirements, integrated, predictive, relevant, tailored, and timely.
Adaptive brand marketing A flexible approach in which marketers respond quickly to their environment to align consumer and brand goals and maximize return on brand equity.
Adaptive enterprise Firms whose business continually flexes, evolves, and pivots in response to rapidly changing customer, competitive, and technology trends.
Adaptive intelligence Real-time, multidirectional sharing of data in order to derive contextually appropriate, authoritative knowledge that helps maximize business value.
Additive manufacturing An industrial process that creates physical products that are digitally designed with software and fabricated by 3D-printing machines. Additive manufacturing methods create tooling, castings, and end-use parts from various materials, such as polymers, metals, and composites.
Advanced analytics Analytic techniques and technologies that apply statistical and/or machine learning algorithms that allow firms to discover, evaluate, and optimize models that reveal and/or predict new insights.
Advanced attribution The practice of measuring the correct partial value of each interactive ad that drove a desired outcome.
Advocate marketing The use of marketing strategy, budget, and resources to encourage customers, employees, or partners to do something on behalf of your company with or without the expectation of mutual benefit.
Age of the customer A 20-year business cycle in which the most successful enterprises will reinvent themselves to systematically understand and serve increasingly powerful customers.
Agile business intelligence A combination of processes, methodologies, organizational structure, tools, and technologies that enable strategic, tactical, and operational decision makers to be more flexible and more responsive to the fast pace of customer, business, and regulatory changes.
Agile CMS A solution for collaboratively curating, creating, and delivering content across channels and campaigns via iterative development and deployment processes.
Agile co-creation Agile co-creation occurs when a software development services provider collaborates with its client, pooling domain knowledge and technical skills, to build a software application using agile methods. Agile co-creation utilizes funding models, techniques, and key performance indicators (KPIs) such as minimally viable product (MVP), Agile sprints, and end user adoption that encourage experimentation and continual product improvement.
Agile commerce An approach to commerce that enables businesses to optimize their people, processes, and technology to serve customers across all touchpoints.
Agile governance Structures and processes that allow an enterprise to diffuse decision making throughout the organization, with just enough oversight and coordination to ensure that business priorities and concerns are met.
Agile O2O Technology-based systems, processes, and skills that help retail firms transform their business and respond rapidly to market dynamics by putting their traditional offline businesses online and by creating a consistent user experience across multiple channels and ecosystems.
Agile workforce enablement A way to transform employee engagement and enable work style flexibility using a deeper understanding of workforce experiences built on virtual and cloud technology and combined with updated processes and enhanced self-service.
Algorithm A set of rules and operations optimized for a specific outcome.
Always addressable customer A person who owns and personally uses at least three connected devices, access the internet multiple times a day, and goes online from multiple physical locations, at least one of which is "on the go."
Always-on social marketing processes Always-on social marketing processes are a steady state of activities that are unpredictable and customer or industry initiated. Examples include customer inquiries, brand mentions, cultural moments, industry breaking news, and crisis management.
Antiphishing solutions Technology products that prevent phishing attacks by detecting malicious emails and increasing end user awareness of phishing techniques.
AP eInvoicing The capturing of electronic invoice data; automating the matching of an invoice with a purchase order, contract, and receipt; a workflow to approve unmatched invoices; provides cash forecasting, discount management, and financing; and the support of dynamic discounting.
API management solution A foundation for establishing, managing, and securing digital business relationships via direct applications connections within and between organizations and individuals, centering first on REST APIs but extending to encompass any means of digital connection.
API strategy and delivery service provider A consulting firm or systems integrator that, in addition to delivering solutions that employ application programming interfaces (APIs), is organized to assist technology user enterprises to design, establish, and mature their organizational competency and strategy for APIs.
Application cloud testing Application testing capabilities and practices that leverage the cloud's elastic scalability, universal accessibility, breadth of services, and pay-as-you-go business model to manage and/or execute functional and nonfunctional testing of applications wherever they are built or run.
Application delivery network A set of network infrastructures that, when deployed together, provide application availability, security, visibility, and acceleration.
Application elasticity The ability of an application to automatically adjust the infrastructure resources it uses to accommodate varied workloads and priorities while maintaining availability and performance.
Application interfaces Interfaces that enable integration between business applications. They are available off the shelf but are frequently custom-built in-house or by systems integrators.
Application modernization The transformation of application assets to adapt and optimize them to migrate to, or more readily integrate with, more modern digital software and cloud architectures or to retire them outright. Application modernization and migration services providers offer technical and professional services to perform application and system assessments, application migration, application modernization, development services for application replacement, and application retirement.
Application threat modeling A methodology that analyzes the architecture and design of an application to find potential design flaws that have security consequences.
AR eInvoicing The presenting of electronic invoices to customers; tracking the status of presented invoices; receives advance payment notices; and the support of dynamic discounting.
Artificial intelligence The theory and capabilities that strive to mimic human intelligence through experience and learning.
Artificial intelligence consultancies Service providers that have dedicated or concentrated expertise and offerings to deliver on artificial intelligence capabilities.
Attack surface The sum of all externally addressable vulnerabilities within an environment or system.
Augmented intelligence The use of AI to improve a human's ability to do their job combining machine learning technologies for processing and analyzing data at scale; technologies for automating and orchestrating standard processes; and human input, decision making, and action.
Augmented reality The virtual overlay of contextual digital information that a computer generates on a physical-world object and that a user sees in the display of a mobile device as its camera captures it in real time.
Authentication management solutions Authentication management solutions provide human and machine users with login, secure token service (STS) and validation, single sign-on (SSO), session management, identity federation, native two-factor authentication (2FA), and coarse-grained authorization to web and native mobile applications in a centralized policy management and auditing framework.
B2B digital ecosystem A network of suppliers, distributors, and business customers that is based on a distributed, adaptive, and open platform, which has properties of self-organization, scalability, and sustainability, and that collaborates to meet rising customer needs, drive innovation, and explore new business models.
B2B eCommerce The sale of B2B products by manufacturers directly to businesses and by wholesalers and distributors indirectly to businesses.
B2B marketing agencies A select class of service providers that strategize, plan, create, and manage marketing activities on behalf of clients to help increase the overall exposure of the company and its products, generate demand for offerings, enable sellers and partners, and deepen business relationships with target audiences and current accounts.
B2B marketing automation Tools and processes that help generate new business opportunities, improve potential buyers' propensity to purchase, manage customer loyalty, and increase alignment between marketing activity and revenue.
B2B marketing performance management A B2B marketing discipline, supported by tools and processes, that increases marketing's value to the organization by governing the goal setting, monitoring, and continuous optimization of marketing's contribution to revenue and other priority business goals.
B2C EBPP A platform that manages the digital delivery of B2C bills and billing-related communications and facilitates electronic bill payment services.
Banking platform A core banking application along with most, if not all, of the relevant functions for a bank's business, as well as a comprehensive multichannel functionality.
Bare-metal cloud services IaaS offerings that deliver dedicated physical infrastructure that does not include virtualization and is provisioned via the same type of cloud interface with the common characteristics of virtual machine- (VM)-based cloud offerings, including on-demand access, unlimited scale, and detailed resource accounting.
Behavioral biometrics Technologies that pattern users' device interactions so that organizations can continuously authenticate and augment verification of identities across digital channels.
Behavioral targeting The process of serving tailored content to website visitors based on their characteristics, behavior, and interaction history.
BI governance A combination of policies, processes, and technologies that allows business and technology pros to collaborate, manage, monitor, and adjust BI usage to maximize BI value and effectiveness. BI governance is a key component of data governance; the findings and outcomes of BI governance feed into data governance processes and may affect data governance policies.
BICoE A permanent, cross-functional, virtual or physical organizational structure, loosely coupled for flexibility and agility, that is responsible for the governance and processes necessary to deliver or facilitate the delivery of successful BI solutions; it's also an institutional steward of, protector of, and forum for BI best practices.
Big data The practices and technology that close the gap between the data available and the ability to turn that data into business insight.
Big data fabric Bringing together disparate big data sources automatically, intelligently, and securely, and processing them in a big data platform technology, such as Hadoop and Apache Spark, to deliver a unified, trusted, and comprehensive view of customer and business data.
Big data integration The integration of data from disparate big data sources including Hadoop, NoSQL, internet of things (IoT), cloud, data warehouses, files, and databases, whether on-premises or in the cloud, structured or unstructured, to support big data analytics, predictive analytics, and other workload patterns.
Big data NoSQL A nonrelational database management system that provides storage, processing, and accessing of any type of data and which supports a horizontal, scale-out architecture based on a schemaless and flexible data model.
Big data search and knowledge discovery solutions Tools and technologies that support the self-service extraction of information and new insights from large repositories of unstructured and structured data that resides in multiple sources, such as file systems, databases, streams, APIs, other platforms, and applications.
Big data warehouse A specialized, cohesive set of data repositories and platforms that supports a broad variety of analytics running on-premises, in the cloud, or in a hybrid environment. BDW leverages traditional and new big data technologies such as Hadoop, Spark, columnar and row-based data warehouses, ETL and streaming, and elastic in-memory and storage frameworks.
BISC A permanent, cross-functional, virtual, or physical organizational structure, loosely coupled for flexibility and agility, responsible for the governance and processes necessary to deliver or facilitate the delivery of successful BI solutions, as well as an institutional steward of, protector of, and forum for BI best practices.
Blockchain A concept consisting of the methods, technologies, and tool sets to support a distributed, tamper-evident, and reliable way to ensure transaction integrity, irrefutability, and non-repudiation. Blockchains are write-once, append-only data stores that include validation, consensus, storage, replication, and security for transactions or other records.
BPM governance A formal decision-making process that establishes the structure of the BPM program and projects in terms of lines of responsibility, authority, and communication. It defines the policies, standards, measurements, empowerment, and feedback mechanisms that enable the program's execution.
Brand experience The sum of all the impressions, beliefs, and expectations that a customer has of a brand, including direct interactions, messaging, and peer conversation.
Brand resilience The ability of the brand experience to live up to and remain consistent with the brand promise, maintaining its integrity even in the face of damaging interactions, events, or circumstances.
Branded content Content that a brand develops or curates to add consumer value. Often taking the form of entertainment or education, branded content is designed to build brand consideration and affinity, not to sell a product or service.
Browser isolation technology A capability that combines an email isolation system and virtual browser technology; it can easily integrate with an existing infrastructure and provides a way to isolate and control a user's interactions on the open internet. The service or capability must require no software or plug-ins on the endpoint and be compatible with any device, OS, browser, and mail client.
BT service catalog A subset of the BT service portfolio, representing all live services managed on behalf of the business.
Business agility The transition to a digital business, which allows an enterprise to embrace market, organizational, and operational changes as a matter of routine.
Business architecture An organized and repeatable approach to describing and analyzing an organization's business and operating models to support a wide variety of organizational change purposes, from cost reduction and restructuring to process change and transformation.
Business capability implementation An integrated, operational, measurable combination of people, process, technology, and physical and digital resources that fulfill the definition of a business capability (a complete running part of a business).
Business change management The process, tools, and techniques to manage the people side of change to achieve a required business outcome.
Business designer A services firm that helps companies apply expert design practices to creating strategies and business models and to overhauling digital ecosystems from end to end.
Business development The identification and development of new business opportunities involving new markets, products, services, and business models. The business development function can involve market research, ideation, customer validation, portfolio optimization, product or service development, and financial and resource management, including partnerships.
Business drivers The evolving customer, competitor, and technology trends that collectively act as an environmental force, driving your company to evaluate and hone its CRM strategy and practices.
Business intelligence A set of methodologies, processes, architectures, and technologies — supported by organizational structures, roles, and responsibilities — that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information used to enable more effective strategic, tactical, and operational insights and decision making that contribute to improving overall enterprise performance.
Business networks Networks that enable business partners to collaborate and share data in real time on a single cloud platform based on trust relationship models rather than by mapping and exchanging B2B data.
Business process management A discipline focused on continuous improvement and transformation of end-to-end cross-functional business processes.
Business process outsourcing Using a third-party supplier to perform a business function or part of a function. Examples of business processes commonly outsourced include aspects of human resources (e.g., employee benefits administration), finance (e.g., accounts receivable), and call center (e.g., inbound customer support).
Business resilience The ability to thrive in the face of unpredictable events and circumstances without deteriorating customer experience or sacrificing the long-term viability of the company.
Business satisfaction The extent to which business customers believe a service meets their expectations.
Business service management The concept of dynamically linking business-focused IT services to the underlying IT infrastructure.
Business technology Technology, systems, and processes to win, serve, and retain customers.
Business technology resiliency The ability of business technology to absorb the impact of an unexpected occurrence and not disrupt business operations.
Businesswide networking fabrics A combination of network components interweaving layer 1 through layer 7 network hardware, software, and services to interconnect users, data, and applications throughout the entire business, based on business policies through a networking orchestration system.
Campaign social marketing processes Campaign social marketing processes are time-bound efforts that are planned and brand initiated. Examples include integrated branding efforts, regularly scheduled social series, new product launches, contests/promotions, holiday/seasonal messaging, and live events.
Canonical information model A model of the semantics and structure of information that adheres to a set of rules agreed upon within a defined context for communicating among a set of applications or parties.
Carbon and energy management software Software that helps executive/business management monitor, analyze, and manage enterprise carbon emissions and energy consumption; facility/ops management monitor, analyze, and manage the carbon emissions and energy consumption of facilities; and IT management monitor, analyze, and manage the carbon emissions and energy consumption of ICT assets.
Case management A highly structured, collaborative, dynamic, and information-intensive process that is driven by outside events and requires incremental and progressive responses from the business domain handling a case.
Change management The process, tools, coordination, and planning to manage the people side of change through sentiment awareness and change-management skills that together achieve a required state of business agility.
Channel incentives and program management Channel incentives drive behavior; whether establishing new behaviors, suppressing old ones, or repositioning partners for a new opportunity. Incentives can also mask deficiencies in business value propositions. Channel incentives and program management solutions automate and scale channel incentives across a broad set of partners.
Chatbots for IT operations solutions Chatbots and virtual agents deliver digital experiences through virtual personas and automation accessed through conversational interfaces. Chatbots for IT operations solutions are designed to assist in or facilitate the execution of IT operations and service delivery activities with targeted functionality, such as domain-specific intent models and templated workflows.
ChatOps The extension of a chat platform to enable collaboration and decision-making within one virtual environment. ChatOps merges human conversation with automation through custom configurations, integrations, and operational bots.
CISO The role responsible for the creation, implementation, and oversight of strategies and programs designed to limit information risk across the entire extended enterprise to a level tolerable to the business.
Client onboarding A firm's activities when a client signs up for a new product or enrolls for a new service; these drive the product/service engagement and future cross-selling and retention goals.
Clienteling The use of data about an individual customer's buying habits and preferences during in-store interactions, typically in high-end or luxury retail stores.
Cloud bursting The dynamic reallocation of workloads from on-premises environments to cloud providers and vice versa. Workloads can represent technical infrastructure or end-to-end business processes.
Cloud computing A standardized technology delivery capability (services, software, or infrastructure) delivered via internet-standard technologies in a pay-per-use, self-service way.
Cloud contact center providers Vendors that provide a cloud-based subscription service for contact center software suites for omnichannel routing, reporting, IVR, and workforce optimization. A number of deployment options are available, ranging from dedicated infrastructure and software to multitenant contact-center-as-a-service (CCaaS) solutions.
Cloud data warehouse An on-demand, secure, and scalable self-service data warehouse that automates the provisioning, administration, tuning, backup, and recovery to accelerate analytics and actionable insights while minimizing administration requirements.
Cloud HARK platforms Distributed computing software and services that are rooted in open source Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark to ingest, store, process, manage, and analyze data to generate insights that drive business outcomes.
Cloud security gateway A consolidated solution for cloud data protection, cloud data governance, and cloud access security intelligence.
Cloud service provider Any third-party technology vendor that offers its services in compliance with the NIST definition of cloud computing.
Cognitive moment An instance where a system offers people human-like (cognitive) assistance based on their unique context and needs.
Cognitive operations Software that applies advanced analytics and machine learning to analyze historical IT operations data and make predictions that expedite management, speed problem resolution, prevent developing problems, and attach business significance to those problems resolved or prevented.
Cognitive search Indexing, natural language processing, and machine learning technologies combined to create an increasingly relevant corpus of knowledge from all sources of unstructured and structured data that use naturalistic or concealed query interfaces to deliver knowledge to people via text, speech, visualizations, and/or sensory feedback.
Cognitive search and knowledge discovery The new generation of enterprise search solutions that employ AI technologies, such as natural language processing and machine learning, to ingest, understand, organize, and query digital content from multiple data sources.
Cognitive tipping point A CTP is the inflection point at which cognitive technology transforms a given segment of work by interacting with humans naturally and by turning data into insights and action.
Collaboration work management (CWM) tools Software tools that support the confluence of project and process work by allowing users to create personal and team workspaces; invite other users, internal and external to the organization, to collaborate on digital artifacts; identify workload requirements and capacity; and allocate activities to other users to deliver on work items and then track progress.
Collaborative economy A business environment that leverages nonhierarchical, multiplatform collaboration tools to efficiently transfer information and opinions among individuals via peer-to-peer communication to create and sustain competitive advantage.
Competitive intelligence A systematic and ongoing process for gathering information to derive actionable insights about competitors, the competitive environment, and trends in order to further the organization's business goals.
Complex event processing CEP automates the process of correlating events to identify patterns that may represent threats or opportunities and orchestrating actions to respond to them.
Computational propaganda Concerted activity with financial, geopolitical, or other explicit motives to sow discord and distribute biased or misleading information at massive scale through the use of powerful computing resources, specialized AI and machine learning, and access to distributed online forums and social networks (and the resulting psychographic data).
Computer vision Tools and technology to analyze images and video in order to understand and interpret the objects and object features within the images and video.
Connected world Technologies that enable objects and infrastructure to interact with monitoring, analytics, and control systems over internet-style networks.
Container security Products that reduce the vulnerabilities containers may introduce by implementing automatic security checks and processes throughout the development life cycle.
Content analytics The process of extracting and analyzing information patterns in unstructured collections to improve the management of content and document-centric processes.
Content governance The combination of rules, processes, guidance, and teams that together ensure that content created and published across a business supports its strategic goals. In the case of marketing, these goals ladder up to optimal brand and customer experiences.
Content intelligence The use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to understand and capture the qualities inherent in any content — its emotional appeal, subject matter, style, tone, or sentiment, for example.
Content marketing A marketing strategy where brands create interest, relevance, and relationships with customers by producing, curating, and sharing content that addresses specific customer needs and delivers visible value.
Content marketing platforms Solutions that help marketing teams collaborate on a content strategy; orchestrate the numerous, concurrent streams of activity by content creators, curators, and distributors inside and outside the company; and optimize downstream cross-channel distribution to key audiences.
Content platform A software platform architected specifically for the design, development, and delivery of document-, content-, or process-rich applications. Content platforms enable the decoupling of repository, application, and user interface layers, and reveal services and APIs for application creation and integration.
Content production agencies Service providers that specialize in the efficient, large-scale, on-brand production of marketing content and assets for brands, based on third-party creative direction or leadership (usually from either a creative agency or the brand itself).
Content services Procedures related to accessing content and modifying materials (e.g., check in, check out, permissions, security).
Contextual marketing engine A brand-specific platform that exploits customer context to deliver utility and guide the customer to the next best interaction.
Contextual privacy A business practice in which the collection and use of personal data is consensual, within a mutually agreed upon context, for a mutually agreed upon purpose.
Contingent labor The term for employing temporary workers to fill specific requirements on a short-term or long-term basis; also called staff augmentation.
Continuous business services A thin layer of process and technology that binds business capabilities from multiple organizations to moments in a customer journey through any and all channels and continuously creates and captures specific customer value through ongoing management and updates.
Continuous delivery and release automation Enabling faster, higher-quality, more automated software delivery through modeling applications, infrastructure, middleware, and their supporting installation processes and dependencies. The resulting release packages then transition across defined digital pipelines, spanning the value stream from source code through build, test, package, and deployment into production.
Continuous deployment The technical capabilities to continuously deploy infrastructure, software, and process changes in support of digital business applications or services to customers.
Continuous optimization A data-, analytics-, and insights-driven approach that seeks to leverage every customer interaction to evolve the understanding of the customer in order to adapt and optimize customer experiences.
Continuous software delivery A set of techniques and tools that enable businesses to deliver minimum viable products (MVPs) by reducing the time, risk, and expense of software delivery. Continuous software delivery (CD) requires frequently releasing small batches of changes, with extensive visibility and traceability, and it depends on a largely automated pipeline that orchestrates the plan, design, build, test, and deployment of software across staged environments to production.
Continuous testing The people, processes, and technology to deliver quality at speed and minimize business risk by conducting all Agile testing activities continuously in parallel to and in an integrated fashion with ideating/planning, building, integrating, delivering, and deploying features into production. Testing also happens post-production by leveraging the DevOps feedback loop.
Continuous value delivery Removing friction from the value delivery process by bringing together the people responsible for designing and delivering a product or service and giving them ownership of the outcomes, while using Agile and DevOps delivery models to continuously refine and improve the customer experience.
Contract lifecycle management Software solutions that help firms create and negotiate contracts, manage individual contract compliance, and understand the risks, obligations, and entitlements in your contract portfolio.
Converged infrastructure An approach to technology infrastructure that packages server, storage, and network functions into a modular unit and adds a software layer to discover, pool, and reconfigure assets.
Convergent designer A services firm that helps companies apply expert design practices to products, services, and spaces.
Conversational interface An interface that lets a person use natural language to interact with a technology that adjusts its responses based on previous interactions and contextual knowledge.
Conversational marketing The ability for a brand to scale interactive and personalized communications and relationships with its customers in a persistent, dynamic dialogue — on time, in context, and across channels.
Cord-cutters Used in Europe and the US to define those who have chosen to forgo their landlines.
Core banking applications An (important) subset of a banking platform that includes deposits, credit, loans, product configurators, plus related basic client data.
cPEST analysis A modification of traditional PEST analysis that looks at the impact of political, economic, social, and technology changes on a firm's current and potential customers.
CPQ solutions CPQ solutions are integrated suites of software applications that enhance sales productivity across channels by automating or guiding the processes around product configuration, pricing, and quoting in order to deliver the right products to the right customers at the right prices.
Crisis communication and mass notification solutions  Vendors that deliver alert and critical messages via a variety of communication modes at scale and facilitate incident response to a range of critical events such as extreme weather, active shooter scenarios, business technology outages, etc. Offerings include predefined templates and workflows, facilitate bidirectional communication, and integrate other data such as third-party intelligence, physical access data, IP addresses, and location data to increase situational awareness of the event itself and affected individuals.
CRM strategy An organization's approach to executing the business processes and technologies to target, acquire, retain, understand, and collaborate with customers.
CRM technology road map A plan that determines the specific technology solutions that will help an enterprise meet its short- and long-term customer relationship management goals.
Cross-channel attribution The practice of using advanced statistical approaches to allocate proportional credit to marketing communications and media activity across all channels, which ultimately leads to the desired customer action.
Cross-channel banking platform A front-end solution that enables interactions and transactions via the web and other channels; works with existing back-end solutions like core banking to deliver functionality; and potentially offers front-end-specific capabilities like account aggregation, content management, or product overviews and infrastructure for purposes like security and integration.
Cross-channel behavior When a customer or prospect moves from one touchpoint to another to complete their objective.
Cross-Channel Review An evaluation based on a scenario methodology to uncover flaws that prevent users from accomplishing goals when their paths take them across multiple channels.
Cross-touchpoint behavior Any instance in which a customer or prospect moves from one touchpoint to another when completing an objective.
CRUD A current-state analysis exercise that inventories the systems, applications, and business processes that can create, read, update, and delete critical enterprise data and attributes. It's used to identify the processes and data access points that are affecting data quality or allowing improper usage of the data without suitable validation and governance.
Culture competency Creating a system of shared values and behaviors that focus employees on delivering great customer experiences.
Customer advocacy The perception on the part of customers that a firm does what's best for them, not just what's best for the firm's own bottom line.
Customer analytics solutions Solutions that allow firms to analyze customer data to optimize customer decisions and design customer-focused programs and initiatives that drive acquisition, retention, cross-sell/upsell, and targeted marketing campaigns.
Customer collaboration A reciprocal exchange of valuable information and insights between a vendor and its client stakeholders.
Customer communications management Software used to compose, format, personalize, and distribute content to support physical and electronic customer communications and improve the customer experience. CCM software supports content types such as letterhead, invoices, correspondence, marketing materials, policies, statements, and welcome kits.
Customer data management The people, processes, technologies, and architectures that collect, analyze, organize, and share customer data to support business functions including R&D, operations, marketing, sales, and customer experience.
Customer data onboarding The process of making offline, known customer data available as online, anonymous audience segments for marketing engagement.
Customer data platform A CDP centralizes customer data from multiple sources and makes it available to systems of insight and engagement.
Customer decision management An enterprise application that enables firms to guide customers to relevant goals, using the customers' contexts and interaction histories as well as adaptive models, business rules, and priorities to select content and actions at customer-facing touchpoints.
Customer engagement marketing Technologies for identifying, organizing, and engaging existing customers to advocate, publish content, activate media, or influence buyers on behalf of your company in exchange for value.
Customer engagement technology gap The gap between the use of business technology to win, serve, and retain customers and what companies deploy today.
Customer experience (CX) Customers’ perceptions of their interactions with a company.
Customer experience ecosystem The web of relations among all aspects of a company — including its customers, employees, partners, and operating environment — that determine the quality of the customer experience.
Customer experience ecosystem maps A visual representation of the interactions among a company, its partners, and its operating environment that produce the customer experience.
Customer experience innovation The creation of new customer experiences that drive differentiation and long-term value.
Customer experience maturity The extent to which an organization routinely performs the practices required to design, implement, and manage customer experience in a disciplined way.
Customer experience strategy A plan that guides the activities and resource allocation needed to deliver an experience that meets or exceeds customer expectations.
Customer feedback management Software and processes that support a company's voice-of-the-customer program by helping it solicit feedback from key customers across channels; centrally collect solicited/unsolicited feedback; analyze structured/unstructured feedback; distribute insights across the organization; close the loop with customers; act on the insights; and monitor progress continuously.
Customer journey analytics An analytics practice that combines quantitative and qualitative data to analyze customer behaviors and motivations across touchpoints and over time to optimize customer interactions and predict future behavior.
Customer journey map A document that illustrates customers' processes, needs, and perceptions throughout their relationships with a company.
Customer life cycle The enterprise's view of the phases a customer passes through in the course of an ongoing relationship with a company.
Customer lifetime value A customer's potential monetary worth through the course of his or her relationship with a business.
Customer loyalty A win-win relationship in which engaged consumers reward brands with increased wallet share and word-of-mouth recommendations.
Customer relationship management The business processes and supporting technologies that support targeting, acquiring, retaining, understanding, and collaborating with customers.
Customer research Understanding your customers in depth and communicating that understanding to employees and partners.
Customer service governance policies and processes A formal decision-making process that establishes the framework of the customer service projects and program in terms of lines of responsibility, authority, and communication and defines the policies, standards, measurements, empowerment, and feedback mechanisms that enable the program's execution.
Customer success programs The services and roles provided by a software-as-a-service (SaaS) vendor to help customers get fast business value out of the SaaS solution and continuously improve to achieve long-term return on investment (ROI).
Customer-activated enterprise An organization that uses technology and data to connect customers and employees in ways that inform every employee, every moment, on every decision to provide deeper and more competent customer engagement.
Customer-centric banking platform A banking platform with a strong focus on customer experience, channels, social media, and analytics, as well as real-time customer-facing functionality and information provisioning.
Customer-centric culture A system of shared values and behaviors that focus employees on delivering great customer experiences.
Customer-centric DNA A strong, shared set of beliefs that guides how customers are treated.
Customer-obsessed enterprise A customer-obsessed enterprise focuses its strategy and its budget on the technologies, systems, and processes that win, serve, and retain customers.
Customer research Understanding your customers in depth and communicating that understanding to employees and partners (also known as user research, design research, or customer understanding research).
CX competency A domain of expertise needed for delivering the intended experiences to customers.
CX ecosystem The web of relations among all aspects of a company — including its customers, employees, partners, and operating environment — that determine the quality of CX.
CX ecosystem map A visual representation of the interactions among a company, its partners, and its operating environment that produce the customer experience.
CX management (CXM) Applying all the CX competencies in alignment with the company’s CX vision by performing the CX activities each one requires.
CX management maturity (CXMM) Your company’s degree of expertise at CX management, especially in terms of discipline: rigor, cadence, coordination, and accountability.
CX measurement Quantifying the quality of experiences and their link to your organization’s overall metrics.
CX prioritization Focusing on what’s most important for your customers’ experience and your business’ success.
CX road map A sequence of projects with assignments to accountable individuals, to be completed over time for the purpose of attaining the degree of CX maturity required to achieve the broader goals of the business.
CX strategy A plan that guides the activities and resource allocation required to deliver intended experiences that meet or exceed customer expectations in accordance with the goals of the organization.
CX vision A depiction of the overall experience an organization intends to deliver to customers that is rooted in the company’s brand and values.
Data analysis service Any service offering targeting the exploration, modeling, or analysis of data in order to derive higher-value business insights from the data.
Data center colocation A fully outfitted and managed data center space, complete with all of the necessary mechanical, electrical, security, and safety equipment and personnel required to house and support the hardware for your technology management functions.
Data center facilities The space, power, cooling, security, and safety equipment required to support IT hardware.
Data certification The process that guarantees data meets expected standards for quality, security, and regulatory compliance, supporting business decision making, business performance, and business process.
Data delivery service Any service offering targeting the data consumption endpoint of the data value chain with the delivery of data insights to business users for presentation or into business processes, e.g., for process automation.
Data discovery The process of analyzing the type, quality, accessibility, and location of data in all available data repositories. It's critical for determining the current state of a data environment, especially when a recent and accurate data dictionary doesn't exist.
Data economy The system that provides for the exchange of digitized information for the purpose of creating insights and value.
Data governance 2.0 An agile approach to data governance focused on just enough controls for managing risk, which enables broader and more insightful use of data required by the evolving needs of an expanding business ecosystem.
Data governance stewardship A combination of data governance policies and stewardship management features that allows business and technical data stewards to collaborate to establish, manage, govern, and assess the policies and rules that maximize data's value and effectiveness.
Data governance tools Tools that provide capabilities to support the administrative tasks and processes of data stewardship. These tools support the creation of data policies, manage workflow, and provide monitoring and measurement of policy compliance and data use.
Data loss prevention A capability that detects and prevents violations to corporate policies regarding the use, storage, and transmission of sensitive data. Its purpose is to enforce policies to prevent unwanted dissemination of sensitive information.
Data management The processes, procedures, policies, technologies, and architecture that manage data from definition to destruction, which includes transformation, governance, quality, security, and availability throughout its life cycle.
Data management services Any service offering targeting the finding, collecting, migration, or integration of data. This may also include the development of infrastructure to support data management operations.
Data policy A business principle that indicates the specific rules and constraints required of data. Data policies can take the form of operating procedures, responsibility and accountability assignments, data standards, and data models, as well as parameters for quality, temporality, and security.
Data preparation solutions Technology that accelerates and democratizes enterprise data exploration and sourcing, blending, cleaning, and transformation of diverse data types for activation via data science and/or connections to BI/analytics, data management, and systems of insight, balancing speed and business user ease of use with manageability, scalability, and governance.
Data preparation tools Software that eases the burden of sourcing, shaping, cleansing, and sharing diverse and messy data sets to accelerate data's usefulness for analytics.
Data protection The mechanisms with which an organization enables individuals to retain control of the personal data they willingly share, where security provides policies, controls, protocols, and technologies necessary to fulfill rules and obligations in accordance with privacy regulations, industry standards, and the organization's ethics and social responsibility.
Data resiliency The ability of data storage and retention technologies to absorb the impact of any unexpected occurrence without any data loss and with minimal impact perceived by customers.
Data services Any service offering, from advisory and consulting services to the building and management of solutions, aimed at the delivery, analysis, management, or governance of data.
Database performance monitoring The detection, recording, and presenting of holistic data and the generation of alerts regarding the performance of enterprise database applications and their host server(s). These solutions are part of the application performance management (APM) discipline.
Database-as-a-service On-demand, secure, and scalable self-service databases that automate provisioning and administration to support new and existing applications and systems of insight.
Deep learning A rapidly evolving machine learning technique used to build, train, and test neural networks that probabilistically predict outcomes and/or classify unstructured data.
Deep process applications The complex, mission-critical efforts that were the domain of traditional BPM. While those remain relevant, DPAs extend that definition to a wide array of more basic, situational process apps that are best led by business users with minimal IT support.
Design thinking A method for problem-solving and innovation based on longstanding practices among professional designers and codified into five activities (related but not sequential) to be more accessible to others: 1) empathizing; 2) defining; 3) ideating; 4) prototyping; and 5) testing.
DevOps Development and operations working together with business sponsors and quality assurance to deliver a continuous stream of innovation into production.
Digital accessibility The extent to which customers are able to get value out of a digital experience regardless of variations in their abilities.
Digital advertising fraud Reaping financial rewards through the deployment of technologies that mislead advertisers on where their ads are running and/or who or what is clicking and interacting with those ads.
Digital asset management Technology that organizations use to manage the creation, production, distribution, and retention of rich media content such as audio, video, images, and compound documents
Digital banking engagement platform An advanced cross-channel/omnichannel banking solution that enables an integrated, seamless, and comprehensive customer and employee experience across touchpoints. Typical functionality includes agile support for banking and channel-specific business requirements, analytics, digital sales and marketing, and a single view of customers, products, and services.
Digital banking platform A comprehensive, but basically modular, pre-integrated set of banking applications designed to cover areas like retail and corporate banking. Further, digital banking platforms are comprised of core banking functions and support processes in near real time, provide insightful information, allow rapid product development, and enable efficient management of customer experience (CX) across technology channels and customer touchpoints.
Digital business A digital business harnesses digital assets and ecosystems to continually improve customer outcomes and, simultaneously, increase operational agility.
Digital business design A business-centric approach to solution architecture, implementation, and integration that brings business and technology design together by placing design priority on aspects of a business such as user roles, business transactions, processes, canonical information, and events.
Digital business platform A modular technology base built around business application programming interfaces (APIs) and designed for the rapid reconfiguration of business models, processes, and ecosystems.
Digital business transformation accelerators  Service providers with capabilities to research markets, shape effective digital transformation strategy, accelerate the build and test of prototype digital products using proven IP, integrate and scale the products in target markets, and successfully guide the necessary changes to continuously transform the business.
Digital content transformation An enterprise-capable service to digitize inbound content, including mobile, office formats, page description languages, web formats, and semistructured formats, to support improved customer experience and operational excellence.
Digital core banking An element of digital banking platform architecture that focuses on provisioning business capabilities, workflows, and processes but which excludes data storage. It allows banks to build new business capabilities without changing their traditional core banking systems.
Digital creepiness A customer's feeling that a digital experience offered by a company knows more about them than it should and is using that information in a way that makes them feel uncomfortable.
Digital customer experience strategy A plan that guides the activities and resource allocation needed to deliver experiences that meet or exceed customers' expectations within and across digital interaction points.
Digital customer experience technologies Solutions that enable the management, delivery, and measurement of dynamic, targeted, consistent content, offers, products, and service interactions across digitally enabled consumer touchpoints.
Digital disruption A mindset that bypasses traditional analog barriers, eliminating the gaps and boundaries that prevent people and companies from giving customers what they want in the moment that they want it.
Digital employee experience A personalized set of interactions, processes, and content resources that enables every employee to achieve success and enjoy a positive work experience.
Digital engagement provider A digital engagement provider has a complete portfolio of engagement competencies and management skills to help you build and deliver great digital experiences at global scale.
Digital experience agencies Partners that can help companies design, build, and manage digital customer experiences in the context of their digital business transformation.
Digital experience delivery road map A plan that matches short-term and long-term digital experience delivery goals with specific technology solutions.
Digital experience delivery vendors Third-party service providers that help create digital experiences through creative design and/or strategy and implement technology solutions — such as content management, digital analytics, and eCommerce platforms — that support digital experiences.
Digital experience development platform A software platform that enables organizations to rapidly create an integrated portfolio of digital experiences across a variety of end user channels.
Digital experience governance Structures and processes that align goals and assign decision rights for digital customer experience strategy and technology across the enterprise and with external partners like systems integrators and digital agencies.
Digital experience platform Software to manage, deliver, and optimize experiences consistently across every digital touchpoint.
Digital intelligence The capture, management, and analysis of customer data and insights to deliver a holistic view of customers' digital interactions for the purposes of continuously optimizing business decisions and customer experiences across the customer life cycle.
Digital intelligence technology Technology that enables the capture, management, and analysis of customer data and insights to optimize digital customer interaction and experience across the customer life cycle.
Digital money management A set of integrated online and mobile tools for money management, typically including but not limited to account aggregation, automatic spending categorization, budgeting, and goal setting.
Digital native A person born after the mid-1990s who has been raised in a world in which the internet and mobile are commonplace.
Digital performance management The optimizing of customer experience and business key performance indicators (KPIs) through comprehensive performance monitoring and analysis of technology, application, and business metrics.
Digital process automation service provider A professional services firm that supports clients' process automation initiatives with expertise in the areas of process automation, business strategy, customer experience, and organizational change management.
The digital self The total collection of digital information relevant to me, including what I create and collect as well as information about me that others create or collect.
Digital store experience technologies Technologies that link or enhance a retail physical store experience with an online experience for customers.
Digital store operations technologies In-store technologies that retailers use to help their physical store teams and operations perform better and become more efficient by understanding customer behavior, gleaning customer insights, and spurring real-time action by store staff.
Digital store technologies In-store technologies that retailers use either to help their physical store teams and operations perform better or to link or enhance a retail physical store experience with an online experience for customers.
Digital track and trace The technology that enables organizations to determine past and current locations of an asset as well as other contextual data that affects the asset.
Digital twin A model that uses physical and digital data to represent a single thing's state and performance in the field with the intent of driving business value for product owners and operators.
Digital wallet A service that lets consumers manage digitized valuables (offers, coupons, loyalty rewards, tickets, boarding passes, gift cards, IDs, electronic receipts, or product information) from multiple brands and that enables payment transactions.
Direct call deflection Calls that were deflected from the call center because a customer posted a question in the community and found an answer there.
Direct-to-value An aspirational approach to customer relationships wherein the brand aspires to deliver as much value as it can, as directly as it can, to the customer.
Disaster-recovery-as-a-service A pay-per-use managed service that uses cloud-based infrastructure and continuous replication technologies; in the case of an outage, it orchestrates the transition of applications to recovery infrastructure to deliver a resilient business service.
Distributed ledger technology A software architecture that supports collaborative processes around trusted data and is shared and distributed across organizational (and potentially national) boundaries.
Document output for customer communications management Software used to compose, format, personalize, and distribute content to support physical and electronic customer communications and improve the customer experience.
Dynamic ad insertion A system that provides flexibility to tailor ad decisioning and insertion as the TV video stream is being played, based on time, device, distribution channel, or individual viewer.
Dynamic case management A highly structured, collaborative, dynamic, and information-intensive process that is driven by outside events and requires incremental and progressive responses from the business domain handling a case.
EA management suite A packaged application in the form of an integrated set of modules addressing a range of EA functions and objectives.
EA service An EA service provides a defined output with a specific value to the recipients through a combination and configuration of capabilities and deliverables.
Edge computing A family of technologies that distributes application data and services where they can best optimize outcomes in a growing set of connected assets. It includes edge infrastructure and edge analytics software.
eDiscovery technologies Tools that provide capabilities to help organizations streamline and operationalize defensible eDiscovery process activities in response to discovery requests triggered by events such as litigation, internal investigations and audits, freedom of information requests, and regulatory action.
eGovernment networks Resilient structures of interdependent public and private sector entities cooperating in real time over the internet.
Elastic application platform An application platform that automates the elasticity of application transactions, services, and data, delivering high availability and performance using elastic resources.
Email marketing vendors Firms that provides technology to create email messages, optimize email content and design, or deploy email messages for marketing purposes.
Emerging technology The practical application of emergent technical knowledge in new and mature products, services, and solutions.
Employee brand advocacy Embedding the brand North Star into the day-to-day operations of the business and evangelizing employees to deliver a superior brand experience for customers, however they choose to interact.
Employee experience (EX) Employees’ perceptions of their experiences working within an organization.
Employee-centric design Aligning technology with employee behaviors during specific work tasks to drive actions that achieve the outcomes that both the employee and the business desire.
Empowered brand health The ability of a brand to manage the collective real-time consumer opinions and behaviors that affect a brand's public perception or performance.
Enablement Providing employees and partners with the resources they need to deliver the right experiences.
Endpoint detection and response Endpoint technologies that: 1) collect telemetry data from systems, 2) perform anomaly detection for the purpose of alerting, 3) enable analysts to perform investigations using collected telemetry, and 4) facilitate a response to incidents.
Endpoint security Saas Endpoint security services/functions hosted by a third party, billed on a pay-per-use model, and delivered via a multitenant architecture.
Engagement platform A platform that supports a distributed, four-tier architecture engineered to deliver compelling experiences, outstanding performance, and modular integration on any device over any network at internet scale.
Enterprise architecture management suites A foundation for capturing, managing, and reporting on a firm's strategic and operational assets, defining the relationships between those assets, and assessing the effectiveness and efficiencies of those assets with the purpose of providing insights that may influence or guide the strategic direction of the firm.
Enterprise business intelligence platform Enterprise software that turns raw data (transactional, operational, master) into signals and actionable insights. These platforms provide reporting, querying, descriptive analytics, data visualization, exploration, and dashboarding functionality as well as data integration, data storage, and advanced analytics based on machine learning and other AI capabilities.
Enterprise-class companies Companies that begin at 1,000 employees and include large enterprises (5,000 to 19,999 employees) and Global 2000 enterprises (20,000 employees and up).
Enterprise container platform A software stack and/or cloud service that provides a container-based development environment for container execution, orchestration, and external integration, plus automation tools for infrastructure, security, and development and operations.
Enterprise content delivery networks Overlay networks that manage the distribution of web/streaming media content and related services in corporate intranets. They extend or replace proxy/caches in corporate networks; enable scheduled distribution of web content and rich media files to branch-office caches during off-peak hours; and manage content in remote caches from a central location.
Enterprise content management A set of strategies and technologies that help information workers find, use, and analyze digital information, from any place, at any time, within the guardrails of corporate policies.
Enterprise data virtualization The integration of any data in real time or near real time from disparate structured, unstructured, and semistructured data sources, whether on-premises or cloud, into coherent data services that support business transactions, analytics, predictive analytics, and other workloads and patterns.
Enterprise data warehouse A repository of information that is used for reporting and analytics. It includes key data management functions, such as concurrency, security, storage, processing, SQL access, and integration.
Enterprise feedback management Software and processes that enable organizations to centrally collect, analyze, and report on feedback from key customer groups and tailor insights to various internal users.
Enterprise file sync and share Technologies that allow organizations to share and replicate content across multiple devices, distributing files to employees and/or customers or partners outside the enterprise.
Enterprise governance A set of responsibilities and practices exercised by the board and executive management with the goal of providing strategic direction, ensuring that objectives are achieved, ascertaining that risks are managed appropriately, and verifying that the enterprise's resources are used responsibly.
Enterprise health clouds Solutions that ingest data from disparate sources, create a 360-degree view of a patient and healthcare consumer, include tools to jumpstart application development, and provide governance and security to manage protected health information (PHI).
Enterprise information management Processes, policies, technologies, and architectures that capture, consume, and govern the usage of an organization's structured data and unstructured content.
Enterprise insight platform suites Integrated or partially integrated suites of data management, analytics, and insight execution components that require some integration and configuration to form a platform.
Enterprise marketing software suite An integrated portfolio of marketing technology products that provide analytics, automation, and orchestration of insight-driven customer interactions to support inbound and outbound marketing.
Enterprise preference management The business practice of systematically collecting, managing, and utilizing explicit customer preferences — about frequency, channel, content, interests, and intent — in outbound communications. These preferences are managed in a centralized repository and collected in a user-facing portal known as a preference center.
Enterprise resource planning The applications that execute the end-to-end business processes supporting a firm's business. ERP encompasses finance (record-to-report), order management (order-to-cash), and procurement (purchase-to-pay), as well as industry-specific functionality and applications if required.
Enterprise service management Extending IT service management capabilities beyond technology services to address business-centric use cases; managing service demand and supply through a common platform, portal, and service catalog; and speeding up innovation and workflow automation through PaaS/low-code development tooling.
Entitlements Attributes of a user or a resource that dictate what kind of access a user has to another resource after authentication; also known as fine-grained authorizations.
eProcurement Software and online networking tools that automate the procurement process by searching for product and service options, initiating a purchase requisition, approving the purchase, and creating a purchase order to send to a supplier.
ePurchasing The group of software tools that supports sourcing and vendor management professionals in buying goods and services.
ERP hub operations The coordinating and consolidation processes of a corporate headquarters.
eSourcing Software that streamlines the sourcing process by generating requisitions, proposals, and information. It automates and accelerates the process of choosing a supplier for recurring purchases of a product or service by generating RFXs, distributing them to suppliers, and scoring the responses.
Ethnography A descriptive account of social life and culture in a particular social system, based on detailed observations of what people actually do.
Experience design (XD) Defining and refining experiences based on your vision and research-based customer understanding.
Experience design provider A services firm that helps companies improve customer experiences and business outcomes by applying expert design practices. 
Extended customer management business process and solutions ecosystem The business processes and supporting technologies that support the key activities of targeting, acquiring, retaining, understanding, and collaborating with customers.
Extended enterprise An organization at which a business function is rarely, if ever, a self-contained workflow within the confines of the company's infrastructure.
Facial recognition A technology solution that stores an image of a face or a set of its characteristics at enrollment time — called an enrollment sample — and compares that stored sample with a live one to authenticate the user.
File analytics Software tools that are used to find and assess documents (unstructured data) and provide insights into their sensitivity, age, or type.
Finance performance consulting Consulting services to help clients improve the strategic direction and effectiveness of their financial operations, including governance, risk management, cost containment, process improvement, technology enablement, and decision-making capability.
First-call resolution Solving new customer problems during the first interaction with that customer.
Forrester's Consumer Energy Index  Forrester's Consumer Energy Index provides an indication of customers' desire, readiness, and capability to increase their engagement with brands, based on taking the pulse of their sense of identity, level of trust, appetite for novelty, and perception of efficacy.
Full-service digital agencies Those that cover three categories of digital services: digital strategy, digital marketing, and digital technology.
Gamification The insertion of game dynamics and mechanics into non-game activities to drive a desired behavior.
Global EA An extension and modification of local and regional architectures and EA practices to encompass a broader set of requirements and challenges to pursuing IT strategy on a global scale.
Global merchant payment providers Technology enablers that provide merchants with access to the payment network to process payments globally. Services include: acquiring, processing, gateway, and security and fraud solutions. 
Governance, risk management, and compliance Coordinated functions to set and enforce the boundaries within which an organization seeks to maximize performance.
Graph databases Optimized database technology to store, manage, and access inter data to answer complex questions.
Grid computing A computer network that enables distributed resource management and on-demand services.
Hadoop-optimized systems Preconfigured hardware platforms comprising CPU, memory, and/or disk that are optimized to run a Hadoop distribution, which includes value-added tools, Hadoop ecosystem software, and/or add-ons appropriate for use by enterprises.
Hadoop/Spark platforms Distributed computing software and services that are rooted in open source Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark to store, process, and analyze data to find and use insights to improve customer experiences, create timely business intelligence, optimize business processes, and make decision making smarter and faster.
Hardcoded threats Vendor- or manufacturer-provided technology or code that enables the illegitimate operation of an item. A hardcoded threat can be electronic in nature, such as a code backdoor, a malicious firmware package, a compromised code library, or an entire technology manufactured negligently in regards to security procedures.
Healthcare analytics Analysis of complex data collected from healthcare, consumers, and other sources, such as the internet of things, used to gain insights on healthcare customers, individually or in aggregate, to enable actionable insights, automation, and streamlined workflows.
Healthcare unbound Technology in, on, and around the body that frees care from formal institutions.
Heuristic evaluation A fast and inexpensive methodology for identifying user experience problems with software, websites, and other channels. It specifically involves evaluators examining the interface and judging its compliance with recognized usability principles (the "heuristics").
High-bandwidth entertainment users Consumers who engage in any one of the following activities: viewing video online, downloading video, online action/fantasy gaming, sharing files, and uploading files.
HR analytics A set of methodologies, processes, and technologies that transforms raw HR data into meaningful information to support strategic, tactical, and operational decision-making.
Human-factor-friendly security The act of analyzing and addressing the impact of human factors on the success of security controls in applications, products, or services that the enterprise deploys to its own workforce or to its customers.
Hybrid cloud management The management of cloud-based infrastructure, middleware, and/or application platforms using any combination of public, private, hosted, and virtual private cloud deployment models; integration coverage depends on the technology landscape and digital business requirements.
Hybrid cloud management solution A cloud-agnostic standalone software solution that automates cloud application and infrastructure service delivery, operations, and governance across multiple cloud platforms.
Hybrid integration platforms Federated on-premises and cloud-based integration platforms with the improved interoperability of existing and new middleware silos of application, B2B, business process management, business events, business rules, and data integration.
Hybrid integration Federated on-premises and cloud-based integration combined with more interoperable middleware silos including applications, B2B, business process management, business events, business rules, and data integration.
Hyperadoption The rapid and simultaneous uptake of unprecedented behaviors.
Hyperconvergence An approach to technology infrastructure that packages server, storage, and network functions into a modular unit and adds a software layer to discover, pool, and reconfigure assets across multiple units quickly and easily. These systems can be implemented as software plus modular physical units or as a software overlay on top of existing infrastructure.
Hypervisor A control software layer that enables multiple operating systems to run on the same physical hardware.
I&O agility The ability to manage continuous, fast, and sustainable change to ensure the transformation toward technology management with a long-term, strategic perspective.
I&O complexity A period of change in infrastructure and operations during which an organization tries to control a new technological environment using obsolete methods and processes.
IAM for IoT A collection of existing and emerging technologies that allow manufacturers, operators, and end users to manage the identity life cycle, governance, and authentication of internet-of-things devices.
Identity resolution The process of integrating identifiers across available touchpoints and devices with behavior, transaction, and contextual information into a cohesive and addressable consumer profile for marketing analysis, orchestration, and delivery.
Industrial IoT software platforms Software solutions that connect to and manage smart devices and infrastructure in industrial and manufacturing environments to integrate operational data and control into business processes.
Influencers Mainstream journalists, industry analysts, subject matter experts, independent bloggers, and certain social media celebrities who have influence in a specific topic or category and are not customers or employees of the brand.
Information archiving Technologies that migrate digital information (in the form of structured data, application data, documents, files, email, content, or social media) from source systems into a repository, retaining the information for a specified period. Solutions may be specialized for one specific data type (such as email), or be broad and comprehensive, supporting multiple data or content types.
Information fabric 3.0 The integration of any data in real time or near real time from disparate data sources, whether internal or external, into coherent data services that support business transactions, analytics, predictive analytics, and other workloads and patterns.
Information governance A holistic strategy for using and managing information to meet business objectives. Information governance ensures the quality of content and data, maximizes its value, and ensures that security, privacy, and life-cycle requirements are met.
Information life-cycle management Includes a range of meanings, from basic archiving to database-driven content management tools and solutions for regulatory compliance. Both storage and software vendors offer information life-cycle management products: Storage vendors focus on hardware awareness; software vendors focus on creating rich metadata and integrating with business processes.
Information workers Employees who use an internet-connected computing device — such as a PC, tablet, or smartphone — for an hour or more per day for work purposes.
In-memory data grids Software tools and technologies that are architected to use chip-based random access memory (RAM) distributed across multiple nodes to accelerate performance and achieve scalability of data access and compute.
In-memory data platform Low-latency access and high-performance processing of large quantities of data by distributing data across DRAM, flash, and SSD in a distributed clustered architecture. It supports both read and write operations across various workload patterns, including transactional, operational, and analytical.
In-memory database A database that stores all or most critical data in DRAM, flash, and SSD on either a single or distributed server to support various types of workloads, including transactional, operational, and/or analytical workloads, running on-premises or in the cloud.
Insight PaaS An integrated set of data management, analytics, and insight application development and management components, offered as a platform that the enterprise does not own or control.
Insight platforms Platforms that unify the technologies to build applications that manage and analyze data, test and integrate the derived insights into business action, and capture feedback for continuous improvement.
Insights services Services that combine internal and external data sourcing and advanced analytics to deliver actionable business insights that clients subscribe to and apply to specific functional or vertical business use cases.
Insights-driven businesses Those that harness and apply data and analytics at every opportunity to differentiate their products and customer experiences.
Insurtech Emerging technologies and services that enable insurance firms to win, serve, and retain customers by continuously delivering new customer value and increasing operational agility.
Integrated business planning Any application that facilitates executive alignment across sales, operations, and finance functions to synchronize enterprise assets and product availability with an enterprise view of customer demand and supply constraints.
Integrated business services A business operating model in which small, persistent, multiskilled teams are responsible for conceptualizing, implementing, and delivering ongoing value through highly variable work that spans existing processes, technologies, and organizations.
Integration strategy and delivery service provider A consulting firm or systems integrator that, in addition to delivering solutions that employ integration products, is organized to assist technology user enterprises to design, establish, and mature their organizational competency and strategy for leveraging multiple styles of integration.
Integration technology Technology for developing, maintaining, testing, deploying, and governing interfaces between applications, machines, or databases.
Intelligent content services A semantically smart, content-centric set of software services that enhances the relationship between people and computing systems by making sense of content, recognizing context, and understanding the end user's requests for information.
Interactive voice response A system that uses a customer database to direct incoming calls, reducing the time agents spend handling calls. Traditional IVR is hardware that uses proprietary applications; doesn't support newer telecom protocols needed for multichannel solutions; and is costly to install, maintain, and customize due to hardware configuration and lack of standards support.
Internal cloud A multitenant, dynamically provisioned and optimized infrastructure with self-service developer deployment, hosted within the safe confines of your own data center.
Internet finance Disruptive financial innovation initiated by internet companies using digital technologies like big data, cloud computing, mobile internet, instant messaging, and social media to develop faster, better, and cheaper ways of serving consumers than the services that the traditional financial industry provides.
Internet of things Technologies that enable objects and infrastructure to interact with monitoring, analytics, and control systems over internet-style networks.
invalid impressions Display and video ad impressions on desktops and laptops that are not seen by real people.
IoT device OS A lightweight operating system that runs on diverse IoT devices, manages device hardware and software resources, and provides common services and APIs for IoT connectivity, management, security, computing, and analytics.
IoT software platforms Software solutions that connect to and manage smart devices and infrastructure in order to integrate operational data and control into business and customer processes.
IP billing Software used by communications service providers to bill customers for IP-based services; a niche part of the customer care and billing market.
IP management exchange (IPMX) A service, residing in the network, operated by a neutral provider that mediates quality of service, revenue settlement, and performance management among different carrier networks.
iPaas A solution that delivers converged data and event integration capabilities, such as batch- and message-based transport, data transformation, connectivity, and orchestration, and where the core engine executes exclusively in the cloud.
IT financial management The use of traditional accountancy and more modern value-based tools and techniques to ensure that I&O provides effective, business-focused stewardship of corporate resources in its delivery of customer-driven IT services.
iWorkers People who use computers in their jobs (information workers).
Jailbreaking Bypassing an app store to distribute applications after installing unsupported software.
Journey management The practices of journey mapping, journey visioning, and journey orchestration, to improve customer experiences and business results across all phases of the customer life cycle.
Journey map A detailed visual representation of a journey that may be hypothetical (if based on assumptions) or evidence-based (if based on research).
Knowledge management solutions Software used to create, publish, and maintain curated content, enabling employees to answer internal and customer-facing questions, and customers to find answers via web or mobile self-service.
L2RM business system Integrated tools and process automation that help B2B marketers improve revenue performance. Holistic, tightly integrated tools attract and qualify potential customers, generate new business opportunities, and improve a buyers' propensity to purchase, while coordinating marketing, sales, and service activities throughout the customer life cycle.
Lead management automation Tools and processes that help generate new business opportunities, manage volumes of business inquiries, improve potential buyers' propensity to purchase, and increase alignment between marketing activity and sales results.
Lead nurturing A sustained relationship with influencers and decision-makers at a potential customer. A firm delivers relevant, valuable insight to a potential customer via integrated channels in exchange for increasing intimacy and influence that results in shorter sales cycles, higher close rates, smaller discounts, and larger deals.
Lead-to-revenue management A business system for marketers with a long, complex, or highly considered buying process; it comprises integrated goals, processes, and metrics that drive effective customer engagement across the customer life cycle from awareness to advocacy. It is measured through the metric of revenue performance — from new customer acquisition through lifetime value.
Lean software An approach to building, delivering, and running software that values fit-to-purpose, simplicity, and time-to-results above all. It minimizes complexity, startup time, and resource usage and avoids features and methods not essential to fulfilling the application's business purpose. Developers can combine Lean software components with others when large systems require more features.
Learning applications The electronic delivery of training material.
Local service agreement A contract that modifies a global or master service agreement to address the specific needs of a region or country.
Location intelligence The practice of collecting and managing customer location data, enriching it with other data sources and analyzing for contextual insights for the purposes of informing optimized actions, decisions, and customer experiences.
Location intelligence platform A cohesive set of location data management, analytics, execution software, and data products to enable enterprises to synchronize and optimize customer experiences, business decisions, and actions.
Location-predictive marketing Predicting a person's future locations and needs on the basis of his or her past locations and needs.
Low-code development platforms Products and/or cloud services for application development that employ visual, declarative techniques instead of programming and are available to customers at low or no cost in money and training time to begin; costs rise in proportion to the business value of the platforms.
Low-code platforms Platforms that enable rapid application delivery with a minimum of hand-coding, and quick setup and deployment, for systems of engagement.
Loyalty management The back-end orchestration of loyalty initiatives and programs.
Loyalty marketing The execution of loyalty initiatives across channels.
Loyalty marketing vendors Services and technology providers that help marketers build and execute strategies — including tactics such as loyalty programs — that foster, retain, and deepen relationships with existing customers.
Loyalty strategy development The research, planning, and design of loyalty strategies, initiatives, and programs.
M2M technologies Technologies that collect and transfer information on the condition of physical assets or people.
Managed hosting A generalized technology delivery mechanism that usually involves administrating server infrastructure on a client's behalf up to the operating system level in the supplier's data center.
Managed security service providers Third-party organizations that continuously and remotely manage and monitor security technologies for customers. The four primary MSSP domains include, but are not limited to: perimeter and network security, application security, endpoint security, and identity and access management. MSSPs offer multitenant service delivery, automation, and a one-to-many support model to maximize economies of scale.
Managed service provider A third-party organization that remotely manages technology resources for customers in four technology areas: network and telecommunications, hardware infrastructure, applications, and security. MSPs employ a one-to-many support model based on low-labor content and low price points to maximize economies of scale.
Market and competitive intelligence solution A solution that enables users to search for and analyze diverse information sources about competitors and market context by AI-assisted collection, curation, and tagging of data and information from internal and external sources. Users then leverage templates, dashboards and collaboration features to share actionable insights across their organization.
Marketing dashboard A highly visual decision support application to consolidate, measure, monitor, and distribute operational and key performance indicators related to marketing activity.
Marketing measurement and optimization solutions Platforms that aggregate data about all factors that affect marketing performance; apply statistical techniques that assign business value to each element of the marketing mix at a strategic and tactical level; and/or provide tools to optimize marketing performance against business impact in the planning and execution of marketing activities.
Marketing mix modeling The use of statistical analysis to estimate, optimize, and predict the impact that paid, owned, and earned multichannel marketing tactics have on key metrics like business revenue.
Marketing operating system The core organizational framework that ties marketing systems, processes, and outcomes explicitly to the unique expectations of discrete customer segments.
Mass customization A product strategy in which customers can tailor a product's appearance, features, or content to their own specifications to achieve an individualized product experience.
Master data management Master data management solutions provide the capabilities to create the unique and qualified reference of shared enterprise data, such as customer, product, supplier, employee, site, asset, and organizational data.
Master service agreement The core contractual document that outlines all overarching terms and conditions that will act as the basis for future agreements. With an MSA in place, all future contract negotiations, such as statements of work, are limited to engagement-specific terms and objectives.
Media agencies Marketing service providers that manage media investments through audience understanding, channel planning, vendor negotiation/buying, and continuous measurement/optimization to provide marketers with efficient and effective omnichannel consumer engagement.
Media buying The practice of sequencing digital advertising across channels so that it is connected, relevant, and consistent with the customer's stage in his or her life cycle.
Messaging app A typically private, one-to-one or one-to-few communication and media tool optimized for mobile.
Micro moment A mobile moment that requires only a glance, touch, or sound to quickly identify and deliver information that one can either consume or act on immediately.
Microservice A piece of code or complete application that does one thing and does it well.
Microservices strategy and delivery service provider A consulting firm or systems integrator that, in addition to delivering solutions that employ microservice architecture, is organized to assist technology user enterprises to design, establish, and mature their organizational competency and strategy for microservices.
Microvideo Video content that is 15 seconds or less in length.
Mixed reality (MR) The virtual overlay of contextual digital information into the real world using holographic objects, anchoring points, and six degrees of physical freedom for movement.
Mobile advertising spending The portion of online advertising spending that is directed toward mobile devices (i.e., smartphones and tablets).
Mobile and tablet commerce The purchase of retail goods, travel services, and daily deals where the payment is captured on a mobile phone or tablet, without speaking to anyone. This excludes purchases made at a retail point of sale using a near field communication (NFC)-enabled device, purchases at vending machines, click-to-call purchases, stock trades and investments, and bill payments.
Mobile app gap When people want applications on a mobile device but find that those apps aren't available.
Mobile containerization The act of providing a secure "container" or workspace for enterprise applications to operate in while being isolated from the non-containerized applications and processes running on the device.
Mobile front-end testing Validation of functional and nonfunctional components of a mobile application's user interface and local functionality.
Mobile image capture The use of a mobile device's camera to capture information from a physical object (e.g., a driver's license or check) and the digitization of this information via a mobile device.
Mobile intelligence The capture, management, and analysis of mobile customer data to gain a holistic understanding of the customer experience that drives the execution and optimization of mobile moments in sync with other engagement channels.
Mobile messaging Any text or multimedia communication between two parties (business-to-consumer, consumer-to-business, or consumer-to-consumer) that occurs on a mobile phone, tablet, or other mobile device.
Mobile mind shift The expectation that I can get what I want in my immediate context and moments of need.
Mobile moment A point in time and space when someone pulls out a mobile device to get what they want in their immediate context.
Mobile search advertising spending Ad spend from cost-per-click (CPC) rates on paid-for ads resulting from mobile search.
Mobile traders Those who have bought or sold stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or exchange-traded funds (ETFs) via the mobile channel in the past three months.
Mobile video ads Advertisements that contain video content and appear in the mobile web or app environment.
Mobile wallet A mobile service that lets customers manage digitized valuables, such as offers, coupons, loyalty rewards, tickets, boarding passes, gift cards, IDs, electronic receipts, or product information, from multiple brands and enables payment transactions.
Modern application functional test automation tools Testing software that provides testers and developers with the ability to define an unlimited number of arbitrary test cases for both user interfaces (UIs) and application programming interfaces (APIs) that can be run continuously throughout the application development life cycle to minimize business risk.
Modern sales enablement A business function that helps all selling systems work in an effective, efficient, and coordinated manner in order to increase revenue lift, minimize costs associated with sales, and deliver more meaningful experiences to buyers.
Modern service delivery A new life cycle that can quickly deliver and make iterative changes through an automated software delivery pipeline, enabling organizations to win, serve, and retain customers with quality products or services.
Multichannel capture Software that scans, captures, indexes, retrieves, processes, and archives digital images, electronic documents, and electronic forms.
Multichannel routing Various channels for customer service, including the phone, online chat, and email.
Multidimensional view of the customer A view of the customer that uses all available information about them — including information pertaining to psychographics, social networks, smart devices, geolocation, and internet usage — to deliver individualized and contextual products, services, and experiences.
Multisourcing The provisioning and blending of services from a set of internal and external providers with the same overall business goal.
Multitenancy Technology architectures that let multiple customers (tenants) share the same applications and/or compute resources securely, reliably, and with consistent performance.
Nanotechnology  The exploitation of quantum mechanical and special properties of matter at dimensions of 1 to 100 nanometers that enable new technologies and innovations in fields like biology, chemistry, materials, medicine, and physics.
Native advertising Any form of paid or sponsored content that directly and transparently contributes to the experience of the site or platform where it appears, by aligning with the format, context, or purpose of that site's or platform's editorial content.
Native mobile application authentication A user providing his or her credentials for authentication in a native mobile application, which usually runs on Android, iOS, or Windows Phone operating systems.
Natural language generation (NLG) Rules, templates, and machine-learning-based technologies that turn data (structured, unstructured, and semi-structured) into grammatically correct narratives, explanations, summaries, and/or conversational content that is indistinguishable from human-authored content.
Nearshoring When a supplier is given work to reduce production costs and is located in a country close or adjacent to the country where the client is located. This is done to decrease time zone differences and cultural disparities while increasing oversight opportunities. Nearshoring is also part of an offshoring strategy to reduce geographic risk of outsourcing to only one country.
New productivity platforms Platforms that speed application delivery and ongoing evolution through visual tools; hot deployment and continuous innovation; built-in administration and management; and the active participation of business experts in application delivery.
Next-generation portfolio management Integrated practices, tools, and cultural shifts that enable organizations to integrate strategic planning with operational execution. It allows them to view both portfolios simultaneously, fed by real-time operational metrics and strategic goals to measure and optimize business performance.
Niche social networks Online communities of like-minded individuals who share content, participate in conversations, and provide expertise about specialized, unique, or regional topics.
NoOps The goal of completely automating the deployment, monitoring, and management of applications and the infrastructure on which they run.
N-tier architecture The number of tiers in an application architecture, such as two or three.
Object storage Storage of data that is broken into distinct segments, each containing a unique identifier that allows for retrieval and integrity verification of the data.
Offshoring When a company relocates a business process or piece of work like manufacturing or IT operations from one country to another where labor costs are much lower than the home country.
Omnichannel The coordination of traditional channels (marketing, selling, fulfillment) and supporting systems to create a seamless and consistent customer experience.
Omnichannel advertising The practice of sequencing all paid media across channels and devices so that it is connected, relevant, and consistent with the customer's stage in his or her life cycle.
Omnichannel B2B commerce An integrated approached for selling to and servicing customers across all relevant traditional and digital channels. It is highlighted by customers having contextually relevant and positive experiences, regardless of preferred channel.
Omnichannel contact center outsourcers Third-party suppliers that manage contact center operations on behalf of their customers with services that include hiring, training and managing agents, delivering customer service technologies developed in-house, conducting customer service over existing channels, deploying new service channels, and implementing and optimizing contact center processes.
Online advertising spending The combined advertising spending via display, search, and social channels across desktop/laptop and mobile devices; also referred to as digital advertising spending.
Online company forum A brand-sponsored interactive environment where consumers and marketers work together to improve a company's products and services.
Online engagement The level of involvement, interaction, intimacy, and influence an individual has with a brand or company online over time.
Open innovation The act of innovating for product strategy professionals whereby new ideas or methods are requested from three broad participant groups: internal constituents, partners, and customers.
Open source services Open source service providers deliver support, training, education, consulting, and other services. Open source service suppliers don't have a primary vendor that they look to for direction. Direction comes from the community. Open source services are provided directly to developers, customers, or users of the software.
Operating system security Considerations for OS security include audit trail/logging, certification testing, integrated security features, OS architecture, third-party products and support, standards compliance, and documentation and training.
Operational-level agreement An agreement between multiple suppliers and a client that outlines a framework for achieving shared service-level agreements.
Operational resilience The ability of an organization to absorb the impact of any unexpected event without failing to deliver on its brand promise.
Operations support system The back-office infrastructure that gives service providers the ability to create, deploy, manage, and maintain communication services. Service providers rely on the OSS for billing information, customer care, network and business management, inventory, engineering, planning and maintenance functions.
Organizational change management The process, tools, and techniques to manage the human element of transformational change. These are applied in concert with project management of a transition from one organizational structure, business process, or technology to another.
Outcome management The continuous adjustment of technology management resources to deliver business results — guided by a fast-cycle review of desired outcomes relative to customer, resource, and budget constraints.
Package implementation services Consultants and systems integrators who implement packaged applications.
PAML solutions Software that provides enterprise data scientist teams and stakeholders with 1) tools to analyze data; 2) workbench tools to build predictive models using statistical and machine learning algorithms; 3) a platform to train, deploy, and manage analytical results and models; and 4) collaboration tools for extended enterprise teams including businesspeople, data engineers, application developers, DevOps, and AI engineers.
Partner relationship management Dynamic business processes and underlying technology that support targeting, recruiting, enabling, managing, understanding, and collaborating with partners to deliver holistic solutions to customers.
Payment tokenization Solutions that replace personal account numbers with a token in payment transactions to help banks, merchants, and other stakeholders in the payment ecosystem avoid payment fraud and reduce the scope of compliance audits.
People-led planning A marketing planning process that determines tactics that demonstrate your brand promise through interactions across a customer's journey and operates as an active, iterative cycle.
Perishable insights Urgent business situations (risks and opportunities) that firms can only detect and act on at a moment's notice.
Perpetually connected consumer A person who owns and personally uses at least three connected devices and access the internet multiple times a day from multiple physical locations, at least one of which is "on the go."
Persona A model of the key behaviors, attributes, motivations, and goals of a company’s target customers, created from primary research with real customers and taking the form of a vivid narrative description of a single person who represents a behavioral segment.
Personal cloud A set of personal devices and federated online services configured and controlled by individuals that 1) organizes and preserves personal or work information, documents, media, and communications; 2) delivers that information to any device or service; and 3) orchestrates integration of personal information across digital devices and online services.
Personal digital twin An algorithm owned by an individual, optimized for his or her personal objectives. It filters content that is counterproductive to the individual's goals and identifies opportunities that support achieving them.
Personal identity and data management The rules, standards, and processes by which individuals and organizations manage, use, and share personal data and identity with other individuals and organizations.
Personal value ecosystems The set of digitally connected products and services that individuals combine to help satisfy their needs and desires.
Personalized experience An experience that uses customer data and understanding to frame, guide, extend, and enhance interactions based on that person's history, preferences, context, and intent.
Personas Models of the key behaviors, attributes, motivations, and goals of a company's target customers, created from primary research with real customers and taking the form of a vivid narrative description of a single person who represents a behavioral segment.
Platform-as-a-service A complete application platform for multitenant cloud environments that includes development tools, runtime, and administration and management tools and services, PaaS combines an application platform with managed cloud infrastructure services.
Platform business A business that makes money from services delivered via apps and APIs on a scalable technical foundation that customers and suppliers integrate into their operations, incorporate into their offerings, and extend through their contributions.
Portal infrastructure Portal foundations. These include application servers, enterprise applications, or integration servers, as well as remote access, single sign-on, search, classification, and business intelligence. And, since most organizations will have multiple portals, one must decide whether a single portal infrastructure will be appropriate for all portals.
Prediction markets for research purposes A platform that collects and aggregates the knowledge and judgment of a group of consumers around a specific event or concept for the purpose of making predictions. The predictions are then used to clarify or confirm the direction of the research in bringing to market the products and services that will resonate the most with consumers.
Predictive analytics Techniques, tools, and technologies that use data to find models — models that can anticipate outcomes with a significant probability of accuracy.
Predictive apps Apps that leverage big data predictive analytics to anticipate and provide the right functionality and content on the right device at the right time for the right person by continuously learning about them.
Prescriptive analytics A combination of analytics, math, experiments, simulation, and/or artificial intelligence used to improve the effectiveness of decisions made by humans or by decision logic embedded in applications.
Price stabilization A contractual guarantee by a service provider to a customer that the provider will not increase prices for services provided under a service contract, with the exception of passthrough charges such as local circuits provisioned via a third party on the customer's behalf.
Private cloud Cloud infrastructure that is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on- or off-premises.
Private community An invitation-only platform exclusively used for research purposes to understand overall consumer behavior, objectively evaluate parts of the customer experience, and conduct co-creation exercises.
Process data governance The coordination of data and process governance to ensure that data management priorities focus on the most critical business processes and decisions and that business process improvement efforts accept accountability for data quality.
Process governance The process for outlining the rules and standards for selecting, prioritizing, and delivering process improvement across the enterprise.
Product APIs APIs designed to directly control a product (whether it is a physical product, digital product, or service) or facilitate its integration into an ecosystem of related products.
Product information distribution services Systems that distribute product information to endpoints (retail, marketplace, marketing, etc.). These systems manage both connections to the endpoints and the requirements of the endpoints.
Product localization The process of adapting products and services for a specific region by adding locale-specific components and translating end-user-facing interfaces and documentation.
Professional services industry Includes legal services, accounting services, consulting services, outsourcing services, architectural services, scientific research services, marketing research services, real estate services, and administrative and support services (such as temporary worker services).
Programmatic selling The use of digital platforms to automate the targeting, aggregation, booking, flighting, analysis, and optimization of online publishers' advertising inventory via sell-side software interfaces and algorithms, with the goal of improving yield. While it includes exchanges based on real-time bidding, it also supports traditional selling methods and workflows.
Project management tool A secure, web-based project management solution that helps track and monitor activities throughout the M&A process. Often, the tools are not used solely for M&A but also for other inorganic growth activities, such as divestures, carveouts, and joint ventures.
Promotion influencers Consumers who subscribe to promotional emails and are the go-tos among their communities for recommendations on retail deals.
Public cloud platform A publicly accessible application-hosting platform for customer-created executables. The service must be a standardized IT service offering, at minimum an application runtime platform and/or virtual infrastructure, delivered in a pay-per-use, self-service way.
Public community A public arena in which consumers can connect with brands and people.
Publishers Individuals and organizations whose business is to create and distribute content. Publishers own the rights to their content and can assign those rights as they see fit.
QR code A matrix code (or two-dimensional bar code) created by Japanese corporation Denso Wave in 1994. QR is derived from "quick response," as the creator intended the code to allow its contents to be decoded at high speed.
Radioactive data Intellectual property plus personal data subject to regulation.
Real-time interaction management Enterprise marketing technology that delivers contextually relevant experiences, value, and utility at the appropriate moment in the customer life cycle via preferred customer touchpoints.
Recovery readiness view A dynamic real-time dashboard that offers instant visibility into the state of recovery and highlights the technology elements that are ready for recovery and those that are not, with remediation recommendations.
Release management The process of planning, scheduling and controlling the movement of releases to test and live environments to ensure that the integrity of the live environment is protected and that the correct components are released.
Reservations systems Software designed for businesses in the travel and leisure market, including airlines, hotels, consolidators, tour operators, and corporate travel departments. Features include booking, inventory management, waitlisting and overbooking management, price control management, commission tracking, forms creation, and many aspects of accounting.
Retail technologies Retail technologies include point-of-sale, inventory and merchandise management, digital signage, and loss prevention systems.
Return on marketing investment A financial metric that calculates the total return generated from marketing investment.
Risk appetite The amount of risk an organization will accept in pursuit of its objectives. It is influenced by the organization's capacity to absorb loss (e.g., of revenues or reputation) and by the culture's propensity for taking risks (e.g., risk-averse versus risk-taking). Positive correlation means a firm with a culture of aggressive risk taking should be prepared to absorb greater losses.
Risk tolerance The amount of deviation from the level of risk defined by the risk appetite that a firm will accept in a specific situation. Risk tolerance should be defined using metrics that are linked to strategic objectives in support of business objectives.
Robotic process automation services Services that complement the functionality of robotic process automation products with consulting, solution design, implementation, bot management, and automation framework development skills, including services rendered either on-premises or as a service.
Robotics quotient RQ measures the ability of individuals and organizations to learn from, adapt to, collaborate with, trust, and generate business results from automated entities, including software like RPA, AI, physical robotics, and related systems.
Rugged DevOps A method that includes security practices as early in the continuous delivery pipeline as possible to increase cybersecurity, speed, and quality of releases beyond what DevOps practices can yield alone.
SaaS marketplaces Online spaces where SaaS buyers can discover SaaS applications, components and services. Leading SaaS marketplaces provide the ability to trial, purchase, negotiate contract terms, manage, expand subscriptions, and renew.
Sales coaching The iterative and collaborative process of accelerating salesperson performance by creating lasting behavior change through one-on-one conversations that are relevant, developmental, and motivational.
Sales enablement A strategic, ongoing process that equips all client-facing employees with the ability to consistently and systematically have a valuable conversation with the right set of customer stakeholders at each stage of the customer's problem-solving life cycle to optimize the return on investment of the selling system.
Sales enablement automation Solutions that enable sellers to efficiently access and share personalized content with buyers across the life cycle. With rich analytics, data visualizations, and comprehensive workflows, these solutions increase marketing and sales collaboration.
Sales force automation An integrated suite of customer relationship management (CRM) tools to streamline and automate core sales processes around activity tracking, opportunity and lead management, territory and quota management, sales forecasting, and performance monitoring.
Sales performance management solutions Automated solutions that help optimize incentive compensation, territory coverage, and quota assignment for direct and indirect sellers. These solutions enhance collaboration among stakeholders, increase sellers' motivation, and provide business leaders with a systematic way to operationalize their company's sales strategies.
Scenario design An approach to creating seamless cross-channel experiences based on an understanding of customers, their goals, and their behaviors.
Security analytics platform A platform built on big data infrastructure to converge logging, correlating, and reporting feeds from security information management, security solutions, network flow data, external threat intelligence, and endpoints and applications. It uses this and machine learning for real-time monitoring and to facilitate rapid incident detection, analysis, and response.
Security architect The organization's technical authority on information security architecture. Ensures that business solution design meets security and compliance mandates and partners with stakeholders acorss the organization to fulfill the functional requirements of business initiatives in a secure fashion.
Security automation and orchestration Technology products that provide automated, coordinated, and policy-based action of security processes across multiple technologies, making security operations faster, less error-prone, and more efficient.
Security awareness and training market Solutions that: 1) educate and prepare the workforce to protect their organization against targeted cyberattacks; 2) promote basic security hygiene; and 3) build a positive security culture. The solutions can range from technical and traditional eLearning and phishing simulations to multimodal progressive training methods utilizing virtual reality and microlearning. They provide education for a range of security topics, including social engineering, phishing, and personal cybersafety.
Security user behavior analytics (SUBA) Functionality that helps build a unified view of users' actions across the network. SUBA collects and correlates information on user activity from logs and other data sources to heuristically and automatically set a user activity baseline; it can then detect, risk score, prioritize, intercept, and enable the investigation of anomalous behavior in real time.
Sensors Real-time data collectors that measure one or more physical properties of the person, place, or thing without an explicit action or input from a human.
Sentiment analysis The automated classification of online commentary as positive, neutral, or negative that is performed to understand the author's feelings and attitudes about a topic.
Serverless computing An approach to software development that abstracts developers from underlying cloud infrastructure. Serverless architecture supports the deployment of arbitrary business logic, decouples state from underlying compute, automatically scales on demand, and supports event-driven communication.
Service design A design method that helps multidisciplinary teams build or improve intangible services by: 1) taking the customer’s perspective; 2) including all stakeholders; 3) visualizing the service as a sequence of actions; 4) using physical artefacts to represent even intangible services; and 5) factoring in all of the service’s environment.
Service orchestration The automation and provisioning of network services to create the best user experience.
Services market for next-generation Oracle applications Services for next-generation Oracle applications align with Oracle's cloud products, focused on increased business agility and improved customer experience (CX). These services span beyond application maintenance and support, and include experience design, consulting, and implementation of newer Oracle Cloud products.
Signature moments Memorably crafted and branded microinteractions that deliver delight and value to customers in an often subtle yet definitively recognizable way.
Smart city A "city" that uses information and communications technologies to make the critical infrastructure components and services of a city — administration, education, healthcare, public safety, real estate, transportation, and utilities — more aware, interactive, and efficient.
Smart computing A new generation of hardware, software, and network technologies that provide IT systems with real-time awareness of the real world and advanced analytics, mobile reach, and collaboration platforms to help people make more intelligent decisions and create alternatives and actions that will optimize business processes and business balance sheet results.
Smart grid The digitization of the power infrastructure; it encompasses everything from bulk generation to transmission, distribution, customers, operations, markets, and service providers. It's an intelligent energy supply chain that spans utilities and consumers.
Social business An organization that removes barriers between individuals and information while making it easy for people to find and engage others who can help them solve customer and business problems.
Social co-creation Using social media and social technologies to involve consumers directly and/or repeatedly in the product development process.
Social CRM The strategy, technology, business rules, workflows, processes and social characteristics that a company implements to respond to the customer's ownership of the conversation.
Social customer care Proactive care includes responding to brand mentions and beyond with the goal of identifying opportunities to surprise and delight customers within social media. Reactive care (traditional customer service) encompasses any response to a customer-initiated transaction or service inquiry within social media.
Social depth platforms Technologies that add social content and interactions (e.g., blogs, ratings and reviews, user-generated content, forums, online communities) to branded websites to drive exploration of products and services.
Social engagement The process of interacting with consumers by responding to their social media postings, with the intent of answering questions, addressing problems, activating influencers, and gathering insights.
Social innovation network An ecosystem that uses social technologies to enable employees to innovate and collaborate, furthering the firm's ability to meet its goals in response to empowered customers.
Social intelligence The management and analysis of customer data from social sources, used to activate, measure, and recalibrate marketing and business programs.
Social investing Community-based, social-influenced investing that lets investors follow or copy the strategies of other investors and discuss investing ideas and strategies in forums with fellow investors.
Social listening An ongoing, engaged process of tracking, identifying, and analyzing online conversations with the intent to understand consumer opinion on topics, engage with consumers, and uncover insights for the betterment of the business.
Social listening platforms Social listening platforms manage and analyze customer data from social sources and use that data to activate, measure, and recalibrate marketing and business programs.
Social loyalty Brand affinity built on the connection of customers to the brand itself as well as to each other.
Social marketing The use of social tactics, media, tools, and technologies across all components of the marketing mix: product, price, promotion, and placement.
Social media management solutions Solutions that help marketers publish, monitor, and respond to customer posts on social networks.
Social media monitoring The passive observation of social data, including tracking, identifying, and analyzing online conversations with the intent to understand consumer opinion on topics.
Social suites Technology offerings that include social listening platforms, social reach platforms, social depth platforms, and social relationship platforms.
Social Technographics A method of benchmarking consumers by their level of participation in social computing behaviors.
Software composition analysis Products that scan an application (without executing it) to identify vulnerabilities and conflicts in open source and third-party components, guiding users on where and how to remediate these flaws.
Software innovation Delivering software that transforms or improves a business process, creates or improves a market offering, or enables or improves a business model in a way that boosts value and impact for the enterprise, customers, or partners.
Software quality Software that meets business requirements, provides a satisfying user experience, and has fewer defects.
Software-as-a-service A standardized software capability delivered via internet-standard technologies in a pay-per-use, self-service way.
Software-defined data center An abstraction model that defines a complete data center by means of a layer of software that presents the resources of the data center as pools of virtual and physical resources. The SDDC also allows them to be composed into arbitrary user-defined services and managed across a physically distributed environment as required.
Software-defined storage A storage architecture that pools new and existing storage resources and allows developers and other business stakeholders to access them without administrator intervention via APIs or service catalogs.
Solution accelerator A software asset that an IT services vendor uses to automate a particular business or aspect of product development for clients. It provides 30% to 90% of the solution that the client is looking for; the provider reuses it across multiple engagements.
Solution governance The mechanisms and processes by which an organization directs or controls aspects of its technology investments; includes strategy and functional requirements.
Sourcing and vendor management office The next-generation organizational structure for SVM practices. The primary differentiator is the ability to act as a federated entity to source solutions and manage vendors holistically across the sourcing life cycle. The SVMO's focus is characterized by an amplified forward-looking, networked-business demand and business-value-led approach.
Specialty designer A services firm that helps companies apply expert design practices to a narrow business goal or a specific technology.
Speed of the customer The speed at which business must operate to satisfy customers' need for immediate information, product, or service delivery. This speed will vary by industry and by engagement but must be as near to real time as possible as timing becomes increasingly critical to an enhanced customer experience.
SQL-for-Hadoop solutions Software that allows users or applications to work with Hadoop data using structured query language (SQL) that is nearly or fully compliant with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
Statement of work A document that outlines the scope of a limited piece of project work and that covers the following aspects: the purpose of the project; the work that must be done in detail and the hardware and software involved; the location of the work to be done; a schedule of deliverables; quality thresholds; any special requirements; and the payment schedule.
Streaming analytics platform Software that can filter, aggregate, enrich, and analyze a high throughput of data from multiple disparate live data sources and in any data format to identify simple and complex patterns to visualize business in real time, detect urgent situations, and automate immediate actions.
Strong authentication The use of multiple credentials or "factors" for proving a person's identity.
Supplier performance management Monitoring and remediating the performance of a supplier. This includes comparing the service quality to industry standards and making sure that the performance meets the expectations defined in the contract.
Surveillance economy A new form of information capitalism that aims to predict and modify human behavior in order to increase revenue and market control.
System of engagement A system that empowers customers, partners, and employees with context-rich apps and smart products to help them decide and act immediately in moments of need.
System of insight The business discipline and technology to harness insights and consistently turn data into action.
Systems availability The ratio between MTBF (mean time between failures) and MTTR (mean time to repair).
Tech governance The policies, frameworks, and processes that facilitate the funding and resource allocation, risk management, and measurement necessary to deliver effective tech strategies.
Technographics® A survey and segmentation that analyzes consumers by the motivations, attitudes, and income they bring to the adoption and use of technology. Technographics is a registered trademark of Forrester Research, Inc.
Technology business management The adoption of tools and processes to shift the management of technology costs to technology value, enabling and supporting the acceleration of the business technology agenda.
Technology-guided business strategy A way of strategic decision making that projects the impact of technology change on customers and markets and invests to get ahead through emerging technology.
Technology innovation chain A series of related technologies that build upon one another synergistically to create breakthrough opportunities.
Test data generation The process of generating fictitious business data based on defined requirements to aid in application development and testing.
Text analytics Text analytics identifies structures and patterns in text and transforms it into meaningful and useful information to enable more effective strategic, tactical, and operational insights and decision making that contribute to improved enterprise performance.
Threat intelligence The details of the motivations, intent, and capabilities of internal and external threat actors. Threat intelligence includes specifics on the tactics, techniques, and procedures of these adversaries. Threat intelligence's primary purpose is to inform business decisions regarding the risks and implications associated with threats.
Three word-of-mouth marketing types Customer advocacy, employee advocacy, and category influencer.
Through-channel marketing automation A distributed marketing system that enterprise marketers use to enable and scale local marketing program execution through channel partners (stores, agents, dealers, franchisees, distributors, and resellers) with governance to protect brand integrity.
Total Economic Impact A methodology used to analyze and support IT decisions; it embraces traditional cost analysis and a best-practice approach to minimizing costs and extends it by explicitly incorporating analysis and quantification of both business benefits and flexibility, while tempering these three categories with an analysis of the risk effects.
Toxic data Personal financial information, personal healthcare information (PHI), personally identifiable information (PII), and intellectual property (IP).
Transform analytics A subset of content analytics that converts unstructured information such as spreadsheets to XML and other data forms.
Transformative innovation Innovation aimed at changing the challenge. Transformative innovation aims at changing the problem by shifting perspectives and transforming your innovation culture for the digital reality. Transformative innovation is about fundamental change.
Translytical database A unified database that supports transactions, analytics, and other workloads and access patterns in real time without sacrificing transactional integrity, performance, or scalability.
Ultra modular computing The radical adoption of modular principles based on using commodity components (from hardware through all levels of infrastructure software) in a standardized architecture in order to simplify the environment for creating, delivering, and operating applications within an enterprise.
Unified endpoint management Products that provide a centralized policy engine for managing and securing employee laptops and mobile devices from a single console.
Unified marketing impact analytics A blend of statistical techniques that assigns business value to each element of the marketing mix at both a strategic and tactical level.
Unified measurement The application of statistical analytical methods to assign business value to each strategic and tactical factor affecting marketing performance across all customer touchpoints. Advanced models go further to incorporate factors including pricing, distribution, competitive activity, and external conditions.
Usability testing The process of assessing the usability of a product or service by: 1) having a sample of its target audience try it; 2) recording their responses — including either their interactions, their self-reported reactions, or both; and 3) analyzing the findings.
User experience (UX) Customers’ perceptions of their interactions with a product, service, or system.
User-generated content Video, image, or written content created by individuals without contractual obligation and published or posted for consumption by a general population or community.
User interface The elements of a device, appliance, vehicle, or other product or system designed for users to interact with.
Value-added resellers Suppliers that sell original equipment manufacturers' hardware, software, or networking equipment and also offer additional services for those products. Examples of additional services include implementation, consulting, and continuous support.
Values-based consumers Consumers who evaluate their purchases not just in terms of the direct benefits they'll receive but also in context of the product's, brand's, or company's values around employment and manufacturing practices, political and social stances, and commitment to other causes or beliefs.
Value stream management tools Tools that enable users to map, visualize, and govern business value flow (including epics, stories, and work items) through heterogeneous enterprise software delivery pipelines.
Vendor viability The likelihood that a vendor will be a capable long-term supplier to the firm, based on its own risk factors and the client's tolerance for the supplier's risk.
Virtual network infrastructure VNI uses virtualized and physical infrastructure; acts as a vertically integrated Layer 2 to Layer 7 module within the infrastructure; creates a fabric of horizontally interwoven networking components; automates and orchestrates infrastructure to deliver the right services to each user; and permits workload management by business units.
Virtual reality (VR) An occluded-view, immersive digital experience made to feel realistic by the addition of body cues like 360-degree views, 3D sound, and, increasingly, several degrees of physical freedom for movement.
Voice of the customer program A systematic approach to collecting customer feedback, mining that feedback for insights, and using those insights to make business decisions.
Voice of the employee Any feedback from employees or partners that pertains to their ability to deliver great customer experiences.
Voice user interface A company's signature for its voice application platform. It supports a unique identification, has specialized characteristics, and is easily recognizable. The VUI addresses the flow of communications and adds personality to the event so a caller listens to a voice that matches the type of business they are calling.
Warehouse management systems Systems that manage the flow of goods through a distribution center or warehouse. Core functions include receiving, put away, order selection, picking, loading and shipping. Major players provide advanced functionality such as labor optimization, dock appointment scheduling and compatibility with handheld RF (radio frequency) devices.
Web content management system A solution for creating content via authoring, development, and collaborative workflows; managing content metadata and code component libraries; and delivering contextual experiences for customer and partner engagement on websites and other digital touchpoints.
Website governance The establishment of policies, processes, ownership, and compliance for interacting with a website. Governance areas include content, navigation, design, access and permissions, copyrights and trademarks, archives and library, home pages, feedback, funding, linking, security, and site management.