Apple owns just 3% of all smartphone minutes spent in apps, according to a new Forrester app behavioral study, which surveyed nearly 2,000 US smartphone owners between October and December 2014. This lags far behind leaders Facebook (13%) and Google (12%) and is on par with Amazon (3%), Yahoo (2%), and Microsoft (1%).

Google and Facebook own the most minutes in key categories where consumers increasingly spend their time — social networking and media. Of the Apple-owned apps that are not shipped with the iPhone, consumers are spending time in books/magazines, music, and web browser app categories.

In the research, Forrester Vice President and Principal Analyst Julie Ask outlines the future of mobile power players: “Apps are worth millions; platforms are worth billions,” she writes. “If you want to make money, build a killer platform.” No one player or platform is safe today, with core competition in the US to come from online or digital giants like Yahoo or eBay, or the Chinese contingent that offers services that are well tuned for the largest smartphone community in the world.